Vol. 8, No. 2 – Winter 2010/2011
USGS Activities Related to Human
Odor Can be the Tip-Off to Unhealthy Water
Marion Reservoir, Kansas, with a posted advisory warning the public not to come
into contact with the cyanobacteria bloom present in the lake (circa 2006).
Photo Credit: Jennifer L. Graham, USGS
Blue-Green Algal Blooms Consistently Produce Cyanotoxins and Taste-and-Odor Causing Compounds
Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in Midwestern lakes produce mixtures of cyanotoxins and taste- and-odor causing
compounds according to a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studying the effects of harmful algal blooms.
Cyanotoxins can cause allergic and/or respiratory issues, attack the liver and kidneys, or affect the nervous system in
mammals, including humans. The findings of this study are significant because studies assessing toxicity and risk of
cyanotoxin exposure have historically focused on only one class of toxins (microcystins). The common presence of several
types of cyanotoxins indicates that there is the potential to inaccurately quantify hazards using current assessment
methods. The findings also suggest that odor (earthy or musty smells) may serve as an additional warning, signaling the
presence of cyanotoxins in water, although cyanotoxins can be present even in the absence of taste and odor problems.
This study was funded by the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, the USGS Kansas Water Science Center, and the USGS Office of Water Quality.
Helping to Understand a Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Nigeria
In several villages of Zamfara State, Nigeria, gold ores are first crushed by hand, and then pulverized in grain
grinders such as this one. Gold ore processing in Nigeria has recently expanded and become much more mechanized.
Small-scale (artisanal) gold-ore processing activities are a potential and suspected source of lead poisoning among
children. These gold ores have a high lead content.
After the gold ore is pulverized the ore is washed, and then the gold is extracted from the ore by mercury amalgamation.
As seen in this photo, liquid mercury is mixed with the ore by hand. When the gold comes into contact with mercury an
alloy of gold and mercury (amalgam) is formed. Public-health workers are concerned about exposures to mercury vapors.
The CDC and United Nations have found high levels of mercury in air from affected villages.
Photo Credits: Dr. Antonio Neri (CDC), and James Durant (CDC).
Scientists from the USGS and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) are collaborating to understand an outbreak of lethal lead poisoning in Nigeria that is associated with the
artisanal processing of gold ores (small-scale activities by individuals rather than large mining companies). A CDC
rapid response team collected an extensive suite of samples from several affected villages, including samples of raw and
ground ores, contaminated and background soils, water, air, and dust and dirt from living and eating areas. USGS
scientists are determining mineralogical, geochemical, and other characteristics of the solid samples. In addition, the
scientists are conducting physiologically based extraction tests on the pulverized ore, soils, and dust samples to
evaluate the bioaccessibility of contaminants such as lead and other toxic heavy metals. Results of these studies will
be used by the CDC, the Nigerian government, and others to help understand the nature and extent of exposure to lead
during artisanal ore processing. The results will also aid in the assessment of potential exposures when liquid mercury
is used to separate the gold from the ore (a process known as amalgamation -- see photos). USGS scientists are working
with the CDC and the U.S. Embassy in Nigeria to explore how earth science
information might be used to help shift mining to gold deposits with less lead, and to develop mineralogical and other
information that could be used to help develop methods that remove most of the lead minerals from the gold ores prior to
processing, thus limiting lead exposure. USGS characterization of mercury contamination in soils and eating area dusts
will also aid in the development of ways to help minimize mercury exposure and methods to remediate contaminated soils.
The USGS component of this work was made possible with funding from the USGS Mineral
Wildlife Health Reporting Tools May Help Prevent Human Illness
Two new tools that allow the public to report sightings of sick or dead wild animals could also lead to the detection
and containment of wildlife disease outbreaks and help reduce associated health threats to humans. The Wildlife Health Event Reporter (WHER) is a new Website that enables anyone with an
Internet connection to report sightings of sick or dead wildlife. The other tool is a mobile phone application "Outbreaks Near Me," which relays user reports to the WHER site. The mobile phone application also accepts reports on human illness. The
new tools are examples of "citizen science," which capitalizes on the public's ability to help record and map natural
phenomena, providing timely information to researchers. Researchers at the Nelson
Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the USGS National Wildlife Health Center in Madison created the WHER. The Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (GEIS) of the U.S.
Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center provided funding for the information platform on which WHER is built.
High Arsenic Concentrations Found in Domestic Wells Across Maine
Percentage of wells in each town with arsenic concentrations greater than 10 micrograms per liter in Maine for samples collected from 2005 through 2009. Towns shown have 20 or more wells.
Modified from Figure 15, p. 29, USGS SIR 10-5199
Scientists from the USGS and the Maine Center for Disease Control
and Prevention have found potentially harmful concentrations of arsenic in private water wells in towns across
Maine. The scientists examined data from more than 11,000 wells in 530 municipalities (cities, towns, and townships)
across Maine. In some cases high arsenic was found in municipalities where elevated arsenic risks were not previously
suspected. More than 25 percent of the sampled wells in 44 municipalities exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum
Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L). In 19 towns, more than 10
percent of the sampled wells had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 50 µg/L, and in 45 municipalities, 1 percent or
more exceeded 100 µg/L. Data came from water samples submitted to the Maine
Health and Environmental Testing Laboratory from 2005 through 2009. These data do not represent a random sample of
wells from each municipality; rather, they provide the best indicator of areas with high concentrations among available
datasets and are a better indicator of arsenic hot spots than data from smaller, randomly designed studies.
The distribution of high arsenic concentrations in wells follows some geographic patterns, which are generally
geologically controlled. There appear to be three distinct large-scale areas of high concentrations (greater than 50
µg/L) of arsenic in groundwater—one in southern coastal areas, one in central Kennebec County, and one in the town of
Ellsworth (Hancock County) and the surrounding areas. In addition, several smaller clusters of isolated high
concentrations of arsenic in groundwater exist. There also are areas of the State with low arsenic concentrations, such
as the northernmost municipalities, and a few towns in the western and west-central areas.
"We found large differences in concentrations from well to well, even at the town
level, so residents need to test their wells to know their arsenic level," said USGS scientist Martha Nielsen, who led
the study in cooperation with the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention. "We are working with the Maine CDC to
identify towns throughout the state where elevated arsenic levels are common but have gone mostly unnoticed."
This cooperative study, supported in part by the USGS National Water-Quality
Assessment Program, was initiated to assist the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention in developing a
better understanding of the statewide spatial occurrence of wells with elevated arsenic levels at the individual town
level, identify areas of the State that should be targeted for increased efforts to promote well-water testing, and
generate data for potential future use in predicting areas of the State likely to have very high levels of arsenic. The
study is the largest of its kind in Maine.
Responding to Recent Wildfires
USGS scientists collecting samples of ash and burned soil for later laboratory analysis after the September 2010
Fourmile Canyon Fire near Boulder, Colorado. The scientists are determining if the ash and soil could have potential
health effects if inhaled.
Photo Credit: Gregg Swayze, USGS
The response to two recent wildfires—the 2009 Station Fire near Los Angeles, California, and the September 2010
Fourmile Canyon Fire in the foothills above Boulder, Colorado—involved both reaction to the dangers of the advancing
fires as well as investigating longer-term environmental health concerns. For both fires, the broader USGS fire response
included helping to (1) evaluate the potential environmental and human-health risks associated with exposure to airfall
ash, residual ash, burned soils, and dusts generated from burned areas; and (2) evaluate the impact of the fires on the
water quality of streams and rivers affected. Samples of ash, soils, and debris were tested for potential contaminants.
Remote sensing measurements were also included in the assessment. A key aspect of fires such as these at the
wildland/urban interface is the understanding of potential contaminants released into the environment from people's
homes that burned during the fire. USGS studies are providing insights into the processes by which potential toxicants
in buildings and building materials are combusted, with resulting implications for public health.
Scientists collected water-quality samples from Arroyo Seco, California, and Fourmile Creek, Colorado, to help
evaluate the effect of the wildfires on stream water quality. Arroyo Seco, provides water to a reservoir that's used to
recharge an aquifer that's used for drinking water. Fourmile Creek
is a tributary to Boulder Creek, and both streams provide drinking water for downstream communities. The streams were
sampled for potential contaminants associated with the wildfires. Result of these studies will help water resource
managers understand effects of wildfire on streams and downstream water quality.
For the Fourmile Canyon Fire, USGS scientists also provided assistance to the Boulder County Public Health department and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Denver Regional Office in identifying informational materials for public release on potential health issues
associated with wildfire ash and smoke exposure. The USGS also helped connect local Colorado public health officials
with counterparts in California State agencies who deal with such issues on a nearly yearly basis. The fire was the most
expensive wildfire in Colorado history, leading to the loss of over 160 homes.
These studies were made possible with funding from the USGS Mineral Resources
Program, USGS National Research Program, the USGS Climate and Land Use Change Mission, USGS California Water Science Center, and the Boulder
Creek Critical Zone Observatory.
- For more information on USGS involvement with the 2009 Station Fire contact Todd Hoefen, Geoffrey Plumlee, Robert Fisher, or Carmen Burton
- For more information on USGS involvement with the Fourmile Canyon Fire contact Geoffrey S. Plumlee, JoAnn Holloway, Sheila Murphy, or Jeff Writer
- Report from Ground Zero: How Geoscientists Aid in the Aftermath of Environmental Disasters: Earth Magazine, v. 54, p. 38-47 (an overview of USGS environmental disaster responses including wildfires)
- After a Devastating Fire, an Intense Study of Its Effects: New York Times, October 2, 2009
- Speciation of Arsenic, Selenium, and Chromium in Wildfire Impacted Soils and Ashes: USGS Open-File Report 2010–1242
- Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California: USGS Open–File Report 2009-1227
- Probability and Volume of Potential Postwildfire Debris Flows in the 2010 Fourmile Burn Area, Boulder County, Colorado: USGS Open-File Report 2010-1244
- 2009 Station Fire Landslide Monitoring Stations, USGS Landslide Hazards Program
- Arroyo Seco WebCam, USGS California Water Science Center
- USGS Expert: Southern California Must Change Wildfire Mentality: From the Field, USGS Western Ecological Research Center
- USGS Minerals and Health Project
- 2009 Station Fire, InciWeb – An interagency incident information management system
- 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire, InciWeb
- Fourmile Canyon Fire, Bounder County, Colorado
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Still Elevated in Many of Nation’s Streams and Aquifers
As samples were collected for laboratory analysis, USGS scientists measured water-quality characteristics at groundwater sampling sites across the Nation.
Photo Credit: USGS
According to a national study by the USGS, many streams and aquifers across the Nation have elevated concentrations
of nitrogen and phosphorus, which have remained the same or increased since the early 1990s. The nutrients nitrogen and
phosphorus can negatively impact human health and aquatic ecosystems. The study results found that nitrate is a
continuing human-health concern in many shallow aquifers across the Nation that are sources of drinking water. In
agricultural areas, more than one in five shallow, private wells contained nitrate at concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for drinking water. The quality and safety of
water from private wells—which are a source of drinking water for about 40 million people—are not regulated
by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act and are the
responsibility of the homeowner.
“This USGS report
provides the most comprehensive national-scale
assessment to date of nitrogen and phosphorus in our streams and groundwater. For years we have known that these same
nutrients in high concentrations have resulted in ‘dead zones
’ when they
reach our estuaries, such as during the spring at the mouth of the Mississippi, and now we have improved science-based
explanations of when, where, and how elevated concentrations reach our streams and aquifers and affect aquatic life and
the quality of our drinking water.”
— Marcia McNutt, USGS Director
Because nitrate can persist in groundwater for years and even decades, nitrate concentrations are likely to increase
in deep aquifers used for public drinking-water supplies during at least the next decade, as shallow groundwater with
high nutrient concentrations moves downward into deeper aquifers. This nationwide assessment of nutrient sources and the
human and natural factors that control how nutrients enter our streams and groundwater can help water-resource managers
anticipate where watersheds are most vulnerable to contamination and set policies and management actions for impacted
resources. This national scale study was funded by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program.
Is There a Connection Between White–Nose Syndrome in Bats and Human Health?
Little brown bats hibernating in a cave in New York State. Most of the bats have white fungal growth on their muzzles,
which is a common characteristic of white-nose syndrome. More photos of bats and white-nose syndrome are available on
the USGS Multimedia Gallery
Photo Credit: Nancy Heaslip, New York Department of Environmental Conservation
While not likely to pose a direct threat to human health, white-nose syndrome in bats may indirectly affect people.
For example, bats are primary predators of insects (a single bat can eat up to 1,200 mosquitoes in one hour), and in
areas where bat populations have been decimated, those bats would have consumed large numbers of insects. Many insects,
such as mosquitoes, can transmit disease to humans and animals such as West Nile Virus. Insect populations
also impact agriculture and forestry, and as a result, declining bat populations could have significant economic
impacts, especially as white-nose syndrome encroaches upon the agriculturally intensive Midwest.
Since March 2008, biologists estimate that over a million bats have died from this disease. White-nose syndrome
mortality has been documented in 11 States in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic. Current estimates of bat population
declines since the emergence of the disease are as high as 97 percent in some areas. Scientists with the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, working with many partners, continue to play a
primary role in research on white-nose syndrome.
Enhancing Resilience to the Environmental Health Consequences of Disasters
Contributions from the Earth Sciences
A map of southern California showing simulated shaking intensity from a hypothetical 7.8 magnitude earthquake centered
southeast of Los Angeles. More shake scenarios may be viewed on the ShakeMap Scenarios page
on the USGS ShakeMap website
Figure 1-2 from USGS Open File Report 2008-1150
Disasters commonly pose immediate threats to human safety and health, but can also release hazardous materials that
pose threats to environmental health. USGS scientists and their collogues from Federal and State agencies are working on
the development of interdisciplinary scenarios to estimate physical, economic, and other consequences of future natural
disasters. These include the 2008 Great Southern California ShakeOut
scenario that modeled a geologically plausible 7.8 magnitude earthquake along the southern San Andreas fault, and
the ongoing ARkStorm scenario that is modeling the impacts of a
potential weeks-long winter storm hitting California. USGS scientists are studying the environmental health implications
associated with the ShakeOut and ARkStorm scenarios. They are using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to bring
diverse types of data together to help understand the potential sources, types, environmental behavior, and health
implications of hazardous materials predicted to result from these disaster scenarios. These studies enhance planning
for, mitigation of, and hence resilience to environmental health consequences of future disasters. This study was made
possible with funding from the USGS Mineral Resources Program and funding from
the USGS Urban Earth project—A multi-hazards demonstration
project in Southern California.
Carbon Dioxide Intrusion in Homes near Reclaimed Coal Mines
A simulated carbon dioxide cloud that has settled above the floor in a typical bedroom. In this case, condensation
allowed the dry-ice-generated cloud to be visible; however, in most settings, carbon dioxide generated from natural soil
processes will not be visible.
Photo Credit: Bret A. Robinson, USGS
In recent years carbon dioxide (CO2) intrusion has become recognized as a potentially serious health threat where
homes with basements are constructed on or near reclaimed surface coal mines. When CO2 invades the living space of a
home, it can displace oxygen and produce a potentially lethal environment. Thankfully, there are no known human
fatalities linked to this phenomenon; however, the deaths of several family pets have been attributed to oxygen
deficiency caused by CO2 intrusion. Working in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, USGS scientists studied the environmental factors
that most influence CO2 intrusion to homes. They found that four meteorological conditions (rapid drops in barometric
pressure, rain, wind, and cold) all contribute to CO2 intrusion. When these conditions happen at the same time and at
their worst, CO2 can be present at concentrations sufficient to cause breathing problems and even death. Because weather
conditions vary greatly with time, it is often difficult to quickly determine if a home or building is accumulating CO2.
However, because these issues represent a potentially serious health threat, it is prudent, when entering the low levels
of any structure, to always be mindful of the telltale signs: pilot lights or candles that will not stay lighted and
rapid or labored breathing, headaches, dizziness, or confused thinking. This study was funded by the Indiana Division of
Reclamation and the USGS Cooperative Water Program.
Tritium Contamination Seeping Deeper into the Snake River Plain Aquifer
USGS scientists deploying specialized water-sampling bottles into a well equipped with a multilevel monitoring system at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho.
Photo Credit: USGS Idaho National Laboratory Project Office.
Any news of contamination is usually not good; however, for residents of southeastern Idaho who depend on
groundwater, the latest news about tritium (a radioactive form of the hydrogen atom) in their groundwater appears to
have a good side. If the tritium, at concentrations well below U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency standards but higher than background levels, is moving deeper into the aquifer, there is less chance that it
could end up in drinking water because wells typically pump water from the upper levels of the aquifer. The discovery by
USGS scientists, working in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, was
made possible by some sophisticated subsurface technology.
Since 2005, the USGS has equipped wells at DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory with multilevel
monitoring systems. Each system consists of multiple sections separated with inflatable, airtight packers. Sections
include remotely operated ports through which scientists can collect water samples. Because each section is sealed off
from the others, the scientists can collect samples from just one thin layer of the aquifer. This lets the scientists
track groundwater contaminants in three dimensions, and allows them to look deeper into the aquifer. The use of this
technology led to the discovery of low tritium concentrations in deep groundwater along the southern boundary of the
Idaho National Laboratory. Previous monitoring limited to the upper aquifer revealed only traces of tritium below the
margin of error for the analytical methods used to measure tritium. This study was made possible with funding from the
U.S. Department of Energy.
Well Construction Linked to Elevated Nitrate in Private Wells in Glacial Aquifers
The fertilizer used on lush green lawns such as this one and fertilizer applied to row crops nearby could contaminant this home's water-supply well with nitrate.
Photo Credit: Kelly L. Warner, USGS
A recent USGS study found that the occurrence of nitrate in private well water in the Nation's glacial aquifers was
related to well construction characteristics. Characteristics such as the well diameter and the depth to the top of the
well screen (where water enters the well casing) were key to predicting the probability of the nitrate in concentrations
greater than 3 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in the well water. Glacial aquifers are water-bearing formations that were
deposited by glaciers. For this study by the USGS
National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, scientists consider "the glacial aquifer system" to be all
unconsolidated aquifers above bedrock north of the line of continental glaciation throughout the Nation. As such,
the glacial aquifer system is the largest aquifer in areal extent used for drinking water and public supply in the
Although some of the highest nitrate concentrations in private wells sampled as part of the NAWQA Program’s national
study (see above article on elevated nitrogen and phosphorus) were measured in the glacial aquifer system, most nitrate
concentrations were near background levels (1 mg/L). Only 4 percent of the private wells sampled in the glacial aquifer
system had nitrate concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L, in contrast to a much higher exceedance rate in shallow, private wells
in agricultural areas in other parts on the Nation. This is notable because some of the highest nitrogen fertilizer
application in the Nation is over the glacial aquifer system. Most private wells are located in rural areas, yet a
nitrogen source is often not the most direct indicator of high nitrate in private wells in the glacial aquifer system.
The natural change in geochemical conditions with depth, such as reduction/oxidation (redox) potential, also is a limiting
factor. Finally, the more information available about well construction and nearby nitrogen sources, the more likely it
is that the vulnerability of a given private well in the glacial aquifer system to nitrate contamination can be
The glacial aquifer system that stretches across the northern part of the United States provides 41 million people with drinking water.
The National Map Users Conference and USGS GIS Workshop – Lakewood, Colorado, May 10 - 13, 2011
The first users conference for The National Map and eighth biennial USGS Geographic Information Science (GIS)
Workshop will bring together scientists, managers, and data users who, through presentations, posters, seminars,
workshops, and informal gatherings, will share accomplishments and progress on a wide variety of geospatial topics.
Presentations on the application of GIS technologies to address human and environmental health issues will be featured
in the USGS Science Strategy and The National Map user track.
Meeting Web Site
Environmental Health Risk 2011: 6th International Conference on the Impact of Environmental Factors on Health – Riga, Latvia, July 25-27, 2011
The conference's objective is to provide a forum for the dissemination and exchange of information on the
diverse aspects of the impact of environmental factors on health across different disciplines. The papers
presented at this conference and past conferences are permanently archived in the Wessex Institute's eLibrary.
Meeting Web Site
4th International Conference on Medical Geology (GEOMED 2011) – Bari, Italy, September 20-25, 2011
The International Medical Geology Association (IMGA) and the
Italian Chapter of IMGA are sponsoring the 4th International Conference on Medical Geology on September
20-25, 2011, in Italy. The conference provides an opportunity for mineralogists, physicians, soil
scientists, toxicologists, geochemists, biologists, chemists, and other specialists to share ideas and
knowledge on the impact of the environment on public and animal health. The conference will focus on the
- Air, Soil and Water Pollution and Quality
- Minerals and the Environment
- Environmental Toxicology and Epidemiology
- Biominerals and Biomaterials
- Risk Assessment and Communication in Medical Geology
Meeting Web Site
139th American Public Health Association (APHA) Annual Meeting and Exposition – Washington, D.C., October 29-November 2, 2011
APHA's meeting program addresses current and emerging health science, policy, environmental health, and practice
issues in an effort to prevent disease and promote health. The theme for the meeting is "Healthy Communities Promote
Healthy Minds and Bodies."
Meeting Web Site
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Clarke, J.S., and Painter, J.A., 2010, Hydrology, water quality, and water-supply potential of ponds at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia, November 2008-July 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5265, 34 p.
Cui, P., Hou, Y., Tang, M., Zhang, H., Zhou, Y., Yin, Z., Li, T., Guo, S., Xing, Z., He, Y., Prosser, D.J., Newman, S.H., Takekawa, J.Y., Yan, B., and Lei, F., 2011, Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China: Journal of Ornithology, v. 152, no. 1, p. 83-92, doi:10.1007/s10336-010-0552-6.
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Dubrovsky, N.M., and Hamilton, P.A., 2010, Nutrients in the Nation's streams and groundwater: National Findings and Implications: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3078, 6 p.
Dusek, R.J., Iko, W.M., and Hofmeister, E.K., 2010, Occurrence of west nile virus infection in raptors at the salton sea, california: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, v. 46, no. 3, p. 889-895.
Finnegan, D.P., Simonson, L.A., and Meyer, M.T., 2010, Occurrence of antibiotic compounds in source water and finished drinking water from the upper Scioto River Basin, Ohio, 2005-6: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5083, 16 p (with appendices).
Foster, A.L., and Katz, B.G., 2010, Occurrence of organic compounds in source and finished samples from seven drinking-water treatment facilities in Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2008: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 550, 5 p.
Graham, J.L., Loftin, K.A., Meyer, M.T., and Ziegler, A.C., 2010, Cyanotoxin mixtures and taste-and-odor compounds in cyanobacterial blooms from the Midwestern United States: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 44, no. 19, p. 7361-7368, doi:10.1021/es1008938.
Harvey, R., Metge, D., Sheets, R., and Jasperse, J., 2011, Fluorescent microspheres as surrogates in evaluating the efficacy of Riverbank filtration for removing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and other pathogens, in Shamrukh, M., ed., Riverbank Filtration for Water Security in Desert Countries: Springer Netherlands, p. 81-96, ISBN:978-94-007-0026-0.
Katz, B.G., Griffin, D.W., McMahon, P.B., Harden, H.S., Wade, E., Hicks, R.W., and Chanton, J.P., 2010, Fate of effluent-borne contaminants beneath septic tank drainfields overlying a karst aquifer: Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 39, no. 4, p. 1181-1195, doi:10.2134/jeq2009.0244.
Kauffman, L.J., and Chapelle, F.H., 2010, Relative vulnerability of public supply wells to VOC contamination in hydrologically distinct regional aquifers: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, v. 30, no. 4, p. 54-63, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2010.01308.x.
Matchett, M.R., Biggins, D.E., Carlson, V., Powell, B., and Rocke, T., 2010, Enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) survival in Montana: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 10, no. 1, p. 27-35, doi:10.1089/vbz.2009.0053.
Nevers, M.B., and Boehm, A.B., 2010, Modeling fate and transport of fecal bacteria in surface water (Chapter 8), in Sadowsky, M.J., and Whitman, R.L., eds., The Fecal Bacteria: Washington, DC., ASM Press, ISBN:978-1-55581-608-7.
Nielsen, M.G., Lombard, P.J., and Schalk, L.F., 2010, Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5199, 36 p.
Norman, L.M., James, C., van Riper III, C., and Gray, F., 2010, The Border Environmental Health Initiative—Investigating the transboundary Santa Cruz watershed: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3097, 2 p.
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Robinson, B.A., 2010, Occurrence and attempted mitigation of carbon dioxide in a home constructed on reclaimed coal-mine spoil, Pike County, Indiana: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5157, 17 p (with Appendix).
Seiler, R.L., 2010, 210Po in Nevada groundwater and its relation to gross alpha radioactivity: Ground Water, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2010.00688.x (Advanced Web release).
Takekawa, J.Y., Newman, S.H., Xiao, X., Prosser, D.J., Spragens, K.A., Palm, E.C., Yan, B., Li, T., Lei, F., Zhao, D., Douglas, D.C., Muzaffar, S.B., and Ji, W., 2010, Migration of waterfowl in the East Asian flyway and spatial relationship to HPAI H5N1 outbreaks: Avian Diseases, v. 54, no. s1, p. 466-476, doi:10.1637/8914-043009-Reg.1.
Thiros, S.A., and Spangler, L.E., 2010, Decadal-scale changes in dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater used for public supply, Salt Lake Valley, Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3073, 6 p.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2010, Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes—Entering a new era of investigations: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010–3093, 4 p.
Warner, K.L., and Arnold, T.L., 2010, Relations that affect the probability and prediction of nitrate concentration in private wells in the glacial aquifer system in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5100, xi, 73 p. p.
Whitman, R.L., Nevers, M.B., Przybyla-Kelly, K., and Byappanahalli, M.N., 2010, Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water (Chapter 6), in Sadowsky, M.J., and Whitman, R.L., eds., The Fecal Bacteria: Washington, DC., ASM Press, ISBN:978-1-55581-608-7.
Wilkison, D.H., and Davis, J.V., 2010, Occurrence and sources of Escherichia coli in metropolitan St. Louis streams, October 2004 through September 2007: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5150, 51 p.
Compiled and Edited by David W. Morganwalp
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